Flange Basics

Roy A. Parisher, Robert A. Rhea, in Pipe Drafting and Design (Third Edition), 2012

Reducing Flange

Like the reducer fitting, the reducing flange in Figure 4.21 is used to make a reduction in the diameter of the pipe. A reducing flange is most frequently used in installations with limited space. Crowded situations may necessitate the use of the reducing flange because it has a shorter overall length when compared to a weld neck flange and reducer-fitting configuration. Be advised however, the flow should travel from the smaller size to the larger. If the flow were reversed, severe turbulence could develop.

Figure 4.21. Reducing flange.

Callouts are placed on drawings to describe the reducing flange in the same manner as those used on the reducer fitting: large end first, small end second. One additional note is needed, however. The pound rating and flange type are included in the callout.

The reducing flange maintains all the dimensional characteristics of the larger end size. One exception, however, is the internal bore. The internal bore is manufactured to match that of the smaller pipe size. Figure 4.22 shows a 12″×6″-300# Raised Face Slip-On flange. Notice the use of abbreviations to keep the size of the callout to a minimum.

Figure 4.22. Reducing flange drawing symbol with callout.

Reducing flanges are manufactured as weld neck, slip-on, or threaded flange types.

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Plant Piping Systems

Alireza Bahadori PhD, CEng, MIChemE, CPEng, MIEAust, RPEQ, in Oil and Gas Pipelines and Piping Systems, 2017

10.7 Flanged Joints

All flange facings should be true and perpendicular to the axis of pipe to which they are attached.

Slip-on flanges, when specified, and reducing flanges should be welded both inside and outside. If the inside weld extends beyond the face of the flange, it should be finished flush. Flange faces should be free from weld spatter, mars, and scratches.

Orifice flange taps should be located in the exact orientation shown on the spool drawing and the inside surface of orifice flanges should be made smooth and clear of any weld spatter that has penetrated through. The sections of pipe to which the orifice flanges are attached should be smooth and free from blisters and scale.

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Laser welding of advanced high-strength steels (AHSS)

S.S. Nayak, ... Y. Zhou, in Welding and Joining of Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS), 2015


Laser welding of advanced high-strength steels (AHSS) related to automotive industry applications is described in this chapter. There are many advantages of using laser welding for body-in-white applications. For instance, the use of laser welding in laser-welded blanks and for reducing flange widths during assembly welding allows automotive designers to reduce the weight of parts, which leads to increased fuel economy and reduced carbon dioxide emissions. Because of the unique microstructure and high hardenability of AHSS, the microstructure and mechanical properties across the weld zone are highly nonuniform. The microstructure of the fusion zone and heat-affected zone (HAZ) are described in detail, including the effects of composition and cooling rate. The hardness profile across the weld in AHSS typically reveals HAZ softening, which occurs because martensite in the base metal is tempered. HAZ softening with the effects of heat input, martensite fraction in the base metal and steel composition is discussed in detail. These changes in the microstructure and local mechanical properties are then correlated to the performance of laser-welded blanks such as tensile properties, fatigue resistance and formability. The chapter provides information about the metallurgy and performance of AHSS laser welds coupled with issues and potential solutions.

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Managing the wheel–rail interface: the Dutch experience

A. Zoeteman, ... J.-W. Lammers, in Wheel–Rail Interface Handbook, 2009

28.3 Optimising wheel maintenance

The last few years have seen a renewed interest on the part of the Dutch Railway industry in the dose relationship between wheel and rail. There is of course a relationship in the obvious sense, the wheel being in constant contact with the rail, but it is also recognised that similar problems are found in both the rail and the wheel, e.g. RCF. Consequently, changes to the wheel shape, material or maintenance have a significant influence on the rail. Based on this train of thought, the wheel–rail interface has been optimised from both perspectives. The following subsections discuss optimisation examples for wheel maintenance, which contribute both to longer wheel life and a more ‘track-friendly’ design and maintenance of vehicles. It is based on Vermeij et al., (2008), in which more details can be found.

28.3.1 Alternative wheel profiles

Until 2005, the UIC-ORE s1002 profile was used for all passenger trains in the Netherlands. This profile was developed in the 1970s and, since then, the railway has changed significantly. Heavier axle loads and stiffer bogies have resulted in new problems like RCF. One way to reduce the occurrence of RCF is optimisation of wheel and/or rail profiles. A logical approach would be to optimise the combination of wheel and rail profiles. This is such a complex problem, though, that the rail profile for the Dutch track was first optimised separately, based on the principle that the rail shoulder should be relieved. Subsequently, the wheel profile has been optimised based on this Anti Head Checks rail profile.

The goal for the optimised wheel profile was to reduce slip forces and increase spread in contact position. This resulted in a dedicated profile for intercity trains, the so-called HIT-profile. Slow trains are still re-profiled with the s1002 profile, because these trains have lower axle loads and lower bogie yaw stiffness. For the development of the new wheel profile, an efficient combination of practice and theory has been used. It is important to start with a theoretical analysis in order to make sure that only feasible profiles (e.g. stability guaranteed) are tested in practice. Practical analysis is inevitable, because it is impossible to simulate every aspect of the outside world.

The optimised wheel profile, discussed here, has resulted in an increase in wheelset life of up to 30 %. This has mainly been achieved by reducing RCF cracking, but also by reducing flange wear. Because the additional costs of turning a different profile are minimal, the cost reduction is of the same magnitude. The impact of this alternative wheel profile on the reduction of RCF in the railhead is not exactly known. one of the aims of the alternative wheel profile was to reduce the slip forces; this means that what is beneficial for the wheel will also be beneficial for the rails.

28.3.2 Condition-based wheelset maintenance

Traditionally, wheelset maintenance was driven by visual inspection of the wheels during short-term (periodic) maintenance. Since 2002 a major reduction in wheel defects has been achieved by implementing a wheel impact load detector system: Gotcha®/Quo Vadis, a wheel impact load detector (WILD) system. (See www.gotchamonitoringsystems.com for more information on this system.)

One of the functions of Gotcha®/Quo Vadis is to measure the wheel quality of the trains, at least once per day during normal operation. If the wheel quality falls below a certain level, wheelset maintenance will be planned. Within a predefined time, the train will be sent to the wheel lathe. The maintenance is condition-based and may take place during short-term maintenance (planned) or when wheel defect levels are exceeded (unplanned).

The impact of this approach to wheelset maintenance on the rail is huge. Since the introduction of Gotcha®/Quo Vadis the number of heavy impacts has been reduced significantly, resulting in less excessive loads on the track. In turn, this results in a higher track life. A sample of the reduction of heavy impacts is shown in Fig. 28.9. Other functions of the system are discussed in Section 28.5.

28.9. Impact of WILD driven wheelset maintenance on high impacts.

28.3.3 Changing re-profiling intervals

The (condition-based) maintenance of wheelsets in the Netherlands was aimed to maximise re-profiling intervals. However, this does not necessarily result in the most cost-effective maintenance regime, nor in an optimum situation for the rail.

Based on a life-cycle cost analysis for wheelset maintenance the scraping principle has been introduced. The scraping principle belongs to the preventive maintenance category. During each short-term maintenance, all wheels are re-profiled, with a cutting depth of around 1 mm. The result is that wheels remain round and, consequently, the dynamic load during their life-cycle is lower. Defect initiations like small cracks and pitting are removed at an early stage. Relatively large cutting depths due to damage accumulation are prevented. Using a small cutting depth, the work-hardened layer is not removed, and this results in a slower development-of-out of roundness. The scraping principle is shown in Fig. 28.10.

28.10. Scraping principle (dashed line represents current regime).

In the first quarter of 2006, a field test was begun with the scraping regime. Two VIRM double-deck intercity EMUs (24 axles, average axle load of 14.3 tonnes) and four ICM single-deck intercity EMUs (16 axles, average axle load of 12.3 tonnes) were maintained according to the scraping principle. Both vehicle types are shown in Fig. 28.11.

28.11. VIRM double deck intercity (a) and ICM single deck intercity (b).

In Fig. 28.12 the defect value growth for a single wheel, as measured by Gotcha, is shown. In February 2006, this wheel was introduced into the scraping regime. With condition-based maintenance, the defect value increases in time, while after introduction of scraping the defect value continues to be at a low level.

28.12. Defect level growth for single wheel before and after introduction of scraping.

This scraping regime is now being used successfully for several train types and the feasibility of its introduction for other train types is being investigated. The scraping principle has one huge advantage for the rail: the dynamic load decreases significantly due to the increased smoothness of the wheel surface. This, together with the use of WILD systems, is keeping impacts due to wheel defects to a minimum.

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Precast steel-concrete hybrid composite structural frames with monolithic joints

Won-Kee Hong, in Hybrid Composite Precast Systems, 2020

9.5 Application of the hybrid composite precast frames with the beam depth reduction capability to high-rise buildings

9.5.1 Application to a 19-story building Original design

The hybrid precast frames with reduced beam depth capability were applied to high-rise buildings, adding one additional floor while the overall building height was maintained [2]. The 68-m tall, 18-story steel building was redesigned as a 19-story building using the hybrid precast beams, which combine the merits of the ductile steel and concrete components to withstand external loading while reducing floor height. The original steel beams, wherein the depths of the beam members were designed for the original 18-story building, are shown in Table 9.5.1. Table 9.5.2 summarizes the dimensions of the precast composite beams (refer to Fig. 9.1.3A) (including steel sections, reinforcing steel, and precast concrete), which replaced the steel frames. The depths of these members are also listed in this table. Table 9.5.3 shows the dead and live loads used in the design of the building. The compressive concrete strength was 24 MPa. The yield strengths of the reinforcing steel and structural steel were 400 and 330 MPa, respectively. Table 9.5.4 compares the design flexural moment strength and the factored moment demand for the new composite beams, and the same comparison for the original steel beams is shown in Table 9.5.5.

Table 9.5.1. Original steel beam sections by floor.

Member SB1 (2F-3F) SB1 (4F-6F) SB1 (PIT) SB1 (7F-19F) SB1(Roof)
Depth (D) 506 mm 506 mm 596 mm 596 mm 344 mm
H-Steel 506 × 201 × 11 × 19 506 × 201 × 11 × 19 596 × 199 × 10 × 15 596 × 199 × 10 × 15 344 × 348 × 10 × 16

Table 9.5.2. New composite beam sections by floor.

Member SB1 (2F-3F) SB1 (4F-6F) SB1 (PIT) SB1 (7F-19F) SB1(Roof)
Width (B) 400 mm 400 mm 400 mm 550 mm 550 mm
Depth (D) 650 mm 650 mm 650 mm 500 mm 550 mm
H-Steel 500 × 200 × 10 × 16 500 × 200 × 10 × 16 500 × 200 × 10 × 16 344 × 348 × 10 × 16 344 × 348 × 10 × 16
Compressive reinforcement 2-D25 2-D25 2-D25 2-D25 4-D25
Tensile reinforcement 2-D25 2-D25 2-D25 2-D25 4-D25

Table 9.5.3. Dead and live loadings.

Floor loads Public facility (2F-3F) Business facility (4F-6F) PIT Residential facility (7F-19F) Roof
Dead load (kN/m2) 5.9 kN/m2 5.3 kN/m2 14.4 kN/m2 10.9 kN/m2 7.0 kN/m2
Live load (kN/m2) 4.0 kN/m2 2.5 kN/m2 3.0 kN/m2 2.2 kN/m2 2.0 kN/m2

Table 9.5.4. Comparison of the design flexural moment strength to the moment demand for the new composite beams.

Member SB1 (2F-3F) SB1 (4F-6F) SB1 (PIT) SB1 (7F-19F) SB1(Roof)
Design flexural moment strength 944.2 kN-m 944.2 kN-m 944.2 kN-m 957.6 kN-m 957.6 kN-m
Moment demand 545.9 kN-m 419.6 kN-m 894.2 kN-m 479.0 kN-m 334.7 kN-m
Accepted O.K. O.K. O.K. O.K. O.K.

Table 9.5.5. Comparison of the design flexural moment strength to the moment demand for the original steel beams.

Member SB1 (2F-3F) SB1 (4F-6F) SB1 (PIT) SB1 (7F-19F) SB1(Roof)
Design flexural moment strength 676.5 kN-m 676.5 kN-m 1349.3 kN-m 677.0 kN-m 445.7 kN-m
Moment demand 545.9 kN-m 419.6 kN-m 894.2 kN-m 479.0 kN-m 334.7 kN-m
Accepted O.K. O.K. O.K. O.K. O.K. Reduction in floor height

The reduction of the floor depth is obtained by employing composite beams as shown in Fig. 9.5.1, which compares the floor depth obtained using composite beams with that of the original steel beams. Floor depths greater than 220 mm were reduced with the composite beams relative to the depth of the conventional steel sections. This comparison was based on the same design code and specification. Composite beams consisted of steel sections and rebars encased in precast concrete, which helped reduce the floor depth.

Fig. 9.5.1
Fig. 9.5.1

Fig. 9.5.1. Composite beam sections with shallow depths [2]. Design of the composite frames

A computer model of the building with 19 floors is shown in Fig. 9.5.2. The construction of high-rise buildings utilizing the precast steel-concrete composite beam is presented, resulting in both reduced floor height and a shortened construction schedule as compared with conventional concrete construction practices. The successful application of the composite beams introduced in this chapter transformed an 18-story building to one with 19 stories, adding one additional floor on the top of the building without increasing overall height of the building. Pour forms were prepared at both ends of the beam-to-column joint. The pour forms, however, could have been removed when mechanical joints with endplates introduced in Chapter 2 were used instead.

Fig. 9.5.2

Fig. 9.5.2. Computer modeling of the 19-story building [2].

The slabs were subsequently installed on the top edges of the U-shaped precast concrete instead of on the top of the wide steel flanges, reducing the floor depth (refer to Fig. 9.1.2). The new section of the proposed composite beams with the reduced depth is shown in Fig. 9.5.1A and B, for the second to sixth floors and the seventh to nineteenth floors, respectively. The composite beams with the reduced depth designed for the 19-story building are compared with the conventional steel depth in Fig. 9.5.1C. The top 150 mm accounts for the depth of the concrete slabs. The total depth of the original steel beam consisted of the fire spray coating, beam and slab depth of 786 mm for the residential floors (sixth floor to eighteenth floor). However, as shown in Fig. 9.5.1C, the depth of the new composite beams was only 500 mm (i.e., reduced by 286 mm from that of the original steel beams). The composite beam sections were designed based on the analytical equations shown in Section 9.3.1 of this chapter. Design summary

Table 9.5.6 describes the building with the precast composite frames as having a gross area of 24,368.53 m2. The building consists of both residential and office space. Although originally designed as an 18-story with steel frame, the design was changed to 19-stories with precast composite frames to meet the project budget. Table 9.5.7 presents the total reduction in the height of the building obtained by using the precast composite beams. The height of the building (66.40 m) re-designed with 19 stories decreased by 1.24 m from that of the 18-story building (67.64 m). It is also recognized in this table that a reduction in the floor by 3.922 m was achieved, enabling the addition of one more floor within the height that was permitted by the city regulations. The average reduction of the floor depth per floor was 220 mm. The height from the slab to the ceiling was not altered.

Table 9.5.6. General information related to 19-story building with precast composite frames [2].

Site Seoul, Korea
District Commercial district, district plan zone, central aesthetic zone
Site area 2071.10 m2
Building type Residential housing, public facility, business facility
Stories 6 below ground, 19 superstructure
Structural system Steel and concrete composite structure
Building area 1235.32 m2
Gross area 24,368.53 m2
Building coverage 59.65%
Bulk rate to building lot 699.91%

Table 9.5.7. Comparison of floor height between the two designs [2].

Story Floors Steel beam
(18 stories)
Floors MHS composite beam (19 stories) Floor height reduction (m)
Depth (mm) Floor height (m) Depth (mm) Floor height (m)
1F Public facility 5.65 Public facility 5.6 0.046
2F 696 4.25 650 4.2 0.046
3F 696 4.25 650 4.2 0.046
4F 696 4.25 Business facility 650 3.4 0.046
5F Business facility 696 3.54 650 3.4 0.136
6F Residential facility 786 3.39 650 3.4 0.136
PIT PIT 786 1.49 PIT 650 1.2 0.286
7F Residential facility 786 3.39 Residential facility 500 3.1 0.286
8F 786 3.39 500 3.1 0.286
9F 786 3.39 500 3.1 0.286
10F 786 3.39 500 3.1 0.286
11F 786 3.39 500 3.1 0.286
12F 786 3.39 500 3.1 0.286
13F 786 3.39 500 3.1 0.286
14F 786 3.39 500 3.1 0.286
15F 786 3.39 500 3.1 0.286
16F 786 3.39 500 3.1 0.286
17F 786 3.59 500 3.3 0.286
18F 786 3.33 500 3.3 0.034
19F 500 3.4
Roof 534 500
Sum 67.64 m Sum 66.4 m 3.922 m

The use of the precast concrete encasing steel beams also helped make the construction schedule similar to that of steel structures, but shorter than that of reinforced concrete structures. The quality assurance program helped improve construction quality and save the cost involved with the corrections. Fig. 9.5.3 illustrates the composite beam in its complete manufactured form. The bottom flange was encased in the precast concrete, which provided the beam with additional flexural capacity. Fig. 9.5.4 shows the manufactured precast products being transported. Fig. 9.5.5 shows the beam-to-column connections after the pour forms were removed. Completed buildings with facade are also shown in Fig. 9.5.6.

Fig. 9.5.3

Fig. 9.5.3. Manufacturing plant [2].

Fig. 9.5.4

Fig. 9.5.4. Transport of composite precast beams.

Fig. 9.5.5

Fig. 9.5.5. Completed beam-column joint.

Fig. 9.5.6

Fig. 9.5.6. Completed buildings with façade.

9.5.2 Erection and assembly of the hybrid composite beams

Table 9.5.8 elucidates the construction schedule for the erections of the composite beams and columns [2]. Four-story steel columns were lifted for the first 5 days of the first week, as shown in Fig. 9.5.7. The erection of the beams followed as shown in Figs. 9.5.8–9.5.9, whereas the metal deck plates were prepared for the concrete casting to form slabs for the first four floors as shown in Fig. 9.5.10.

Table 9.5.8. Construction schedule [2].

Fig. 9.5.7

Fig. 9.5.7. Erection of the columns for the first 4 story unit.

Fig. 9.5.8

Fig. 9.5.8. Erection of the composite beam.

Fig. 9.5.9

Fig. 9.5.9. Connections with high strength bolts.

Fig. 9.5.10

Fig. 9.5.10. Installation of metal deck plates.

The steel columns of the next four floors continued to be erected as shown in Fig. 9.5.11. This process was repeated until the completion of the entire building frames as shown in Figs. 9.5.12 and 9.5.13, which illustrate the completion of both the columns and composite girders on the 12th–15th floors and 16th–19th floors, respectively. Fig. 9.5.13 also shows the steel columns of the 16th–19th floors being completed, whereas the installation of composite girders on the lower floors was in progress, and was completed shortly. A period of 35 days was required to finish the structural frame of the first four floors. The concrete cured for 7 days in the summer and 10 days with heating in the winter. The use of the precast concrete with the steel beams significantly reduced the use of supports and temporary pour forms, contributing to the fast construction that cannot be achieved when adopting the conventional concrete construction practices. The construction schedule would have been significantly delayed if all the concrete had been cast in the field. In addition to the shortened construction schedule, it was found that the quality assurance program for the precast concrete was executed more effectively than the practice of casting concrete in the field. Table 9.5.9 presents a list of the selected buildings, the floor heights of which were reduced with the structural tonnage by implementing the precast composite frames. The constructions of the steel-concrete composite precast beams reflected the individual project conditions, including the limitations, restrictions, and favorites addressed to the precast composite frames.

Fig. 9.5.11

Fig. 9.5.11. Erection of columns for the next 4 story unit.

Fig. 9.5.12

Fig. 9.5.12. Completion of columns and composite girders (12th–15th floors).

Fig. 9.5.13

Fig. 9.5.13. Completion of steel columns (16th–19th floors) [2].

Table 9.5.9. List of selected buildings [2].

Building type Office building Office & residential building Office & residential building Culture center Welfare facilities
Scale 12 + 2 stories 572,886 ft2, 7 basements 1,097,272 ft2 7 basements Superstructure 4 stories
Building type Office & residential building Residential building
-Link beam-
Residential building Office building Office & residential building
Scale 263,314 ft2, 19 + 6 stories 5,337,450 ft2, 54 stories 1 basement 332,720 ft2
Superstructure 15 stories
473,752 ft2, 26 + 4 stories
Building type Research institute Office & residential building Research institute Church Office & residential building
Scale 5 + 1 stories 1,138,656 ft2, 7 basements 9 + 5 stories Superstructure 4 stories 818,409 ft2, 38 + 4 stories
Building type Office building Parking tower Train station Residential building (parking space)
Scale 12 + 3 stories Superstructure 4 stories Superstructure 2 stories 1 basement

9.5.3 Descriptions of the selected buildings

As shown in Fig. 9.5.14A–L, the hybrid composite precast beams were implemented in numerous buildings including residential, office, and sports facilities. The descriptions of each building were given in each photo with the number of floors of the buildings. The reduction capability of the beam depth was demonstrated with rapid construction periods. The proposed hybrid composite precast beams also exhibited good structural capacities, offering the hybrid precast beams with a long span length, including one as long as 22 m for a bowling alley, as shown in Fig. 9.5.14L. Building costs were saved with the steel-concrete hybrid composite precast frames compared with that of steel frames without sacrificing building schedules and construction quality. Besides, additional floors can be added when the floor height for that is secured by implementing the hybrid precast beams with the floor reduction capability.

Fig. 9.5.14
Fig. 9.5.14
Fig. 9.5.14
Fig. 9.5.14
Fig. 9.5.14
Fig. 9.5.14
Fig. 9.5.14

Fig. 9.5.14. Composite precast beams implemented in buildings.

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Piping Codes, Standards, and Specifications

Peter Smith, in The Fundamentals of Piping Design, 2007

1.4.1 American Society of Mechanical Engineers

The series of ASME standards that follow are primarily dimensional standards for piping components:

B1.1, Standard for Screw Threads.

B1.20.1, Pipe Threads, General Purpose, Inch.

B16.1, Cast Iron Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings.

B16.3, Malleable Iron Threaded Fittings.

B16.4, Cast Iron Threaded Fittings.

B16.5, Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings.

B16.9, Factory-Made Wrought Steel Butt Welding Fittings.

B16.10, Face-to-Face and End-to-End Dimensions of Valves.

B16.11, Forged Steel Fittings, Socket-Welding and Threaded.

B16.14, Ferrous Pipe Plugs, Bushings and Locknuts with Pipe Threads.

B16.15, Cast Bronze Threaded Fittings.

B16.18, Cast Copper Alloy Solder Joint Pressure Fittings.

B16.20, Metallic Gaskets for Pipe Flanges—Ring Joint, Spiral-Wound, and Jacketed.

B16.21, Nonmetallic Flat Gaskets for Pipe Flanges.

B16.22, Wrought Copper and Copper Alloy Solder Joint Pressure Fittings.

B16.24, Cast Copper Alloy Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings.

B16.25, Butt Welding Ends.

B16.26, Cast Copper Alloy Fittings for Flared Copper Tubes.

B16.28, Wrought Steel, Butt Welding, Short Radius Elbows and Returns.

B16.34, Valves—Flanged, Threaded, and Welding End.

16.36, Orifice Flanges.

B16.39, Malleable Iron Threaded Pipe Unions.

B16.42, Ductile Iron Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings, Classes 150 and 300.

B16.47, Large Diameter Steel Flanges: NPS 26 through NPS 60.

B16.48, Steel Line Blanks.

B36.10M, Welded and Seamless Wrought Steel Pipe.

B36.19M, Stainless Steel Pipe.

Next, we discuss the scopes of most commonly used ASME standards that include mechanical and dimensional data, which allows the standardization of piping systems and is beneficial for both design and construction personnel.

B1.20.1, 1983, Pipe Threads, General Purpose, Inch (Scope)

This ANSI standard covers the dimensions and gauging of pipe threads for general purpose applications. The B1.20.1 code is a revision and redesignation of ANSI B2.1,1968. The inclusion of dimensional data in this standard is not intended to imply that all the products described are stock production sizes. Consumers must consult with manufacturers concerning availability of products. Metric, general purpose, semitubular rivets purchased for government use conform to this standard and, additionally, to the requirements of Appendix I.

B16.5, 2003, Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings: NPS ½ through 24 (Scope)

This standard covers pressure-temperature ratings, materials, dimensions, tolerances, marking, testing, and methods of designating openings for pipe flanges and flanged fittings. Included are flanges with rating class designations 150, 300, 400, 600, 900, 1500, and 2500 in sizes NPS ½ through NPS 24, with requirements given in both metric and U.S. customary units, with diameter of bolts and flange bolt holes expressed in inch units; flanged fittings with rating class designation 150 and 300 in sizes NPS ½ through NPS 24, with requirements given in both metric and U.S. customary units, with diameter of bolts and flange bolt holes expressed in inch units; and flanged fittings with rating class designation 400, 600, 900, 1500, and 2500 in sizes NPS ½ through NPS 24 that are acknowledged in Annex G, in which only U.S. customary units are provided. This standard is limited to flanges and flanged fittings made from cast or forged materials, blind flanges, and certain reducing flanges made from cast, forged, or plate materials. Also included in this standard are requirements and recommendations regarding flange bolting, flange gaskets, and flange joints.

B16.9, 2003, Factory-Made Wrought Butt Welding Fittings (Scope)

This standard covers overall dimensions, tolerances, ratings, testing, and markings for wrought carbon and alloy steel, factory-made, butt-welded fittings of NPS ½ through 48. It covers fittings of any producible wall thickness. This standard does not cover low-pressure, corrosion-resistant, butt-welding fittings. See MSS SP-43, Wrought Stainless Steel Butt-Welded Fittings.

B16.10, 2000, Face-to-Face and End-to-End Dimensions of Valves

This standard covers face-to-face and end-to-end dimensions of straightway valves and center-to-face and center-to-end dimensions of angle valves. Its purpose is to assure installation interchangeability for valves of a given material, type, size, rating class, and end connection.

B16.11, 1996, Forged Fittings, Socket Welding and Threaded (Scope)

This standard covers ratings, dimensions, tolerances, marking, and material requirements for forged fittings, both socket welded and threaded.

B16.20, 1998, Metallic Gaskets for Pipe Flanges: Ring Joint Spiral Wound and Jacketed (Scope)

This standard covers materials, dimensions, tolerances, and markings for metal ring-joint gaskets, spiral-wound metal gaskets, and metal-jacketed gaskets and filler material. These gaskets are dimensionally suitable for use with the flanges described in the reference flange standards ASME B16.5, ASME B16.47, and API-6A. This standard covers spiral-wound metal gaskets and metal-jacketed gaskets for use with raised face and flat face flanges.

B16.21, 2005, Nonmetallic Flat Gaskets for Pipe Flanges (Scope)

This standard covers types, sizes, materials, dimensions, tolerances, and markings for nonmetallic flat gaskets. These gaskets are dimensionally suitable for use with flanges described in the referenced flange standards.

B16.34, 2004, Valves Flanged, Threaded and Welding End (Scope)

This standard applies to new construction and covers pressure-temperature ratings, dimensions, tolerances, materials, nondestructive examination requirements, testing, and marking for cast, forged, and fabricated flanged, threaded, and welded end and wafer or flangeless valves of steel, nickel-base alloys and other alloys shown in Table 1 of the ASME standards. Wafer or flangeless valves, bolted or through-bolt types, which are installed between flanges or against a flange, are treated as flanged-end valves. Alternative rules for NPS 2½ and smaller valves are given in Mandatory Appendix V.

B16.36, 1996, Orifice Flanges (Scope)

This standard covers flanges (similar to those covered in ASME B16.5) that have orifice pressure differential connections. Coverage is limited to the following: (1) welding neck flanges classes 300, 400, 600, 900, 1500, and 2500 and (2) slip-on and threaded class 300.

B16.39, 1998, Malleable Iron Threaded Pipe Unions (Scope)

This standard for threaded malleable iron unions, classes 150, 250, and 300, provides requirements for the following: (1) design, (2) pressure-temperature ratings, (3) size, (4) marking, (5) materials, (6) joints and seats, (7) threads, (8) hydrostatic strength, (9) tensile strength, (10) air pressure test, (11) sampling, (12) coatings, and (13) dimensions.

B16.47, 1996, Large Diameter Steel Flanges (Scope)

This standard covers pressure-temperature ratings, materials, dimensions, tolerances, marking, and testing for pipe flanges in sizes NPS 26 through NPS 60 and ratings classes 75, 150, 300, 400, 600, and 900. Flanges may be of cast, forged, or plate (for blind flanges only) materials, as listed in Table 1A. Requirements and recommendations regarding bolting and gaskets are included.

B16.48, 1997, Steel Line Blanks (Scope)

This standard covers pressure-temperature ratings, materials, dimensions, tolerances, marking, and testing for operating line blanks in sizes NPS ½ through NPS 24 for installation between ASME B16.5 flanges in the 150, 300, 600, 900, 1500, and 2500 pressure classes. The dimensions are suitable for blanks made of materials listed in Table 1.

B36.10M, 2004, Welded and Seamless Wrought Steel Pipe (Scope)

This standard covers the standardization of dimensions of welded and seamless wrought steel pipe for high or low temperatures and pressures. The word pipe is used as distinguished from tube to apply to tubular products of dimensions commonly used for pipeline and piping systems. Pipe NPS 12 (DN 300) and smaller have outside diameters numerically larger than corresponding sizes. In contrast, the outside diameters of tubes are numerically identical to the size number for all sizes.

B36.19M, 1985, Stainless Steel Pipe (Scope)

This standard covers the standardization of dimensions of welded and seamless wrought stainless steel pipe. The word pipe is used as distinguished from tube to apply to tubular products of dimensions commonly used for pipeline and piping systems. Pipe dimensions of sizes 12 and smaller have outside diameters numerically larger than the corresponding size. In contrast, the outside diameters of tubes are numerically identical to the size number for all sizes. The wall thicknesses for sizes 14 through 22 inclusive of schedule 10S, for size 12 of schedule 40S, and for sizes 10 and 12 of schedule 80S are not the same as those of ANSI/ASME B36.10M. The suffix S in the schedule number is used to differentiate B36.19M pipe from B36.10M pipe. ANSI/ASME B36.10M includes other pipe thicknesses, which are also commercially available in stainless steel material.

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